LONG DURATION ENERGY STORAGE

Efficient, Economical, Anywhere


LONG DURATION ENERGY STORAGE

Efficient, Economical, Anywhere

A simple and reliable process


The CO2 Battery is a long duration and large scale energy storage system based on a thermodynamic process that efficiently stores energy by manipulating CO2 under different state conditions in a closed thermodynamic transformation. The CO2 Battery can operate in charging mode, absorbing power from the grid, and discharging mode, returning power to the grid.

When operating in charging mode the CO2 is withdrawn from an atmospheric gasholder, the Dome, and compressed into an inter-refrigerated compressor. The heat generated from the compression is stored into two Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES). The CO2 is then condensed and stored under pressure at ambient temperature in the CO2 liquid vessels.
 When the system is operating in discharging mode the liquid CO2 is evaporated and heated with the thermal energy previously stored in the TES. The CO2 stream then expands into a reheated turbine returning power to the grid and it is stored into the Dome at ambient temperature and pressure without any leakage to the atmosphere.

A simple and reliable process

The CO2 Battery is a long duration and large scale energy storage system based on a thermodynamic process that efficiently stores energy by manipulating CO2 under different state conditions in a closed thermodynamic transformation. The CO2 Battery can operate in charging mode, absorbing power from the grid, and discharging mode, returning power to the grid.

When operating in charging mode the CO2 is withdrawn from an atmospheric gasholder, the Dome, and compressed into an inter-refrigerated compressor. The heat generated from the compression is stored into two Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES).

The CO2 is then condensed and stored under pressure at ambient temperature in the CO2 liquid vessels. When the system is operating in discharging mode the liquid CO2 is evaporated and heated with the thermal energy previously stored in the TES.

The CO2 stream then expands into a reheated turbine returning power to the grid and it is stored into the Dome at ambient temperature and pressure without any leakage to the atmosphere.

parallax background
parallax background

Simplicity
as the key for cost competitiveness
and high efficiency

The process comprises only two themodynamic transformations, one compression and one expansion. This reduces the overall losses and allows for RTEs of above 75%. Reduced design pressures and temperatures further increase system simplicity and its economical viability enabling the system to operate for decades without any efficiency nor capacity reduction.


All the main equipment used in the CO2 battery are “off the Shelf” and readily available on the market by multiple primary suppliers. Each equipment is already largely tested on the ground in real world applications. This enables a fast commercialization and a safe and reliable operation of the CO2 battery.

Reliable “off the shelf”
equipment

Simplicity
as the key for cost competitiveness
and high efficiency


The process comprises only two themodynamic transformations, one compression and one expansion. This reduces the overall losses and allows for RTEs of above 75%. Reduced design pressures and temperatures further increase system simplicity and its economical viability enabling the system to operate for decades without any efficiency nor capacity reduction.


Reliable “off the shelf”
equipment


All the main equipment used in the CO2 battery are “off the Shelf” and readily available on the market by multiple primary suppliers. Each equipment is already largely tested on the ground in real world applications. This enables a fast commercialization and a safe and reliable operation of the CO2 battery.

CO2 Battery Bricks

 
 
 

A market with numerous revenues streams available needs a fully customizable solution without forgetting the reliability of standardization.

EnergyDome has developed standardized equipment «bricks» that can be combined together to build the perfect CO2 Battery. Charging power (Compression), discharging power (Expansion) and storage capacity can be chosen indipendently within a range of standardized solutions in order to optimize the business plan of any specific project.

Standardized Bricks can be used to build the perfect solution.

 

CO2 Battery Bricks

 
 
 

A market with numerous revenues streams available needs a fully customizable solution without forgetting the reliability of standardization.

EnergyDome has developed standardized equipment «bricks» that can be combined together to build the perfect CO2 Battery. Charging power (Compression), discharging power (Expansion) and storage capacity can be chosen indipendently within a range of standardized solutions in order to optimize the business plan of any specific project.

Standarized Bricks can be used to build the perfect solution.

 

Revenue Stacking

 
 
 

With the continuous increase of grid instability due to the increasing share of inverter based power or unpredictable inertia, grid balancing services become a key factor for a safe and reliable grid operation.

The CO2 battery provides all the frequency and voltage regulation services needed for the reliable operation of the electrical grid assuring for multiple revenues for developers and operators.

The system can be adapted also to provide Fast Response services with a special configuration of the compressor and expander. In this case the plant uses two separated electrical machines, a dedicated motor drives the compressor and the expander moves a dedicate generator. Both compressor and expander will spin synchronous to the grid, the compressor discharge feeds the compressed CO2 into the expander. In case instant fast response power augmentation is required, after signal from the grid the compressor’s switch breaker is opened and immediately net power augmentation to grid is measured. Vice versa in case instant power absorption is required, turbine can be tripped after signal and consequently instant power absorption from the grid can be measured.

 

Revenue Stacking

 
 
 

With the continuous increase of grid instability due to the increasing share of inverter based power or unpredictable inertia, grid balancing services become a key factor for a safe and reliable grid operation. The CO2 battery can provide all the frequency and voltage regulation services needed for the reliable operation of the electrical grid assuring for multiple revenues for developers and operators.

The system can be adapted also to provide Fast Response services with a special configuration of the compressor and expander. In this case the plant uses two separated electrical machines, a dedicated motor drives the compressor and the expander moves a dedicate generator. Both compressor and expander will spin synchronous to the grid, the compressor discharge feeds the compressed CO2 into the expander. In case instant fast response power augmentation is required, after signal from the grid the compressor’s switch breaker is opened and immediately net power augmentation to grid is measured. Vice versa in case instant power absorption is required, turbine can be tripped after signal and consequently instant power absorption from the grid can be measured.

 

The CO2 Battery is the most effective way of storing energy efficiently and cost effectively being characterized by the following advantages:

1Highly Competitive LCOS
System simplicity, high storage density and highly competitive RTE make the CO2 Battery the most competitive way of storing energy
2Reliable and well known «of the shelf» equipment
All the equipment used in the CO2 battery are well known equipment available by multiple primary suppliers
3Long project lifetime >25 years
Storing energy by means of a thermodynamic process that operates at limited design pressure and temperature assure for long project lifetime
4Competitive RTE (>75%) with no degradation over time
Just two thermodinamic transformations with very efficient turbomacinery allow for unprecedented round trip efficiency with no efficiency nor capacity reduction along the whole lifetime of the plant
5Capacity of providing grid regulation services
Simple and reliable rotating equipment and limited maximum temperature and pressures enhance the system flexibility allowing for revenues stacking from grid regulation services
6Standardized equipment bricks
Modular equipment blocks allow for optimization of charging and discharging time as well as storage capacity without losing on system reliability
7No site dependency
CO2 Battery can be installed anywhere without any site constraint